There are two definitions of pain. One definition is physical pain. The breaking of a bone or even a pinch on the skin would fit this definition. C.S. Lewis defines pain, however, as anything that is not liked by a patient. Any mental, physical, emotional, or spiritual discomfort would fit this definition of pain.
"Why does God allow pain and suffering?" First of all, this question shows a complete lack of understanding on the one who asks it. God is not the cause or source of our pain. He did not create us for the purpose of allowing pain to be inflicted on us. The evil that causes us pain was not His doing.
Most will still say, however, that if God is good then he could not possibly allow people to suffer. There is a famous story of Charles Templeton who was a devout Christian. He was close friends with Billy Graham in fact. He held on to his faith dearly until he heard the story of a child in Africa dying in his mothers arms shortly after he was birthed. Templeton could not get over the fact that God allowed this to happen. So, he left his faith. The fact of the matter is that there is sin in the world. And yes, it would be nice if God were to fix all of it. But, instead of doing everything for us, He has allowed us to engage this problem of pain along with Him. Instead of looking to God to solve everything, we should accept the call to redeem all things back to Him.
Even further, who is to say that a little discomfort is not a bad thing. It is in our times of greatest suffering and pain that we are of most use to God. When everything gets taken away from us we have no choice but to run to god and depend wholly on Him.